Rewatching 'A Whole New World'

Sid Shanker -

I just rewatched Gary Bernhardt’s incredible 2012 talk ‘A Whole New World’. This is absolutely one of my favorite tech talks of all time – and it holds up. Before I start gushing about this talk, unlike your average tech talk, this talk has a twist. So you might want to give it a watch before reading any further!

Watch ‘A Whole New World’

I watched this talk for the first time several years ago, when I was much newer to the industry. Now that I’ve been around a little longer, and especially now that I work in software infrastructure, this talk hits a little differently.

In the talk Gary tells us that he made a new terminal-based editor, with some fancy functionality, like being able to have exceptions from production show up inline in the editor, or having Graphviz-like diagrams of your code render.

Of course, much of this functionality would not be possible in a terminal-based editor. So, Gary tells us that in order to do this, he made a new Terminal, with features such as being able to draw raster graphics.

The twist, of course, is that he actually did not build either of these things. It was a thought experiment, cleverly designed to elicit a particular response from the audience.

The overwhelming emotion that most engineers have seeing this talk is one of surprise. Now, for starters, it’s a little weird that that would be the prevailing emotion, given how the tech industry is supposed to be all about innovation. But in the remainder of the talk, Gary digs into why we feel surprised, and what that says about the industry.

Incrementalism can only get you so far

One of the core reasons why a new terminal-based editor, or a new terminal would be so surprising is because of what Gary calls “Shipping Culture”. He quotes Seth Godin here, who captures a lot of the thinking in tech with his “Ship Often” mantra. The thinking here is that through bringing products to market faster, we can learn quicker from customers, iterate. And the need to ship quickly biases us towards incremental changes. Building a new editor or terminal from scratch, on the other hand, is the opposite of incremental.

I’ll add another reason for the bias towards incremental changes – it is much easier to form hypotheses around them and quantitatively understand their impact. This ultimately makes it much easier to justify (to yourself and others) working on incremental things, than working on a more substantial change, where making a quantitative claim about the impact might be harder.

I’ve certainly noticed this bias in myself, especially since I’ve spent much of my career working at startups, where “Shipping Culture” is core to survival. This has sometimes manifested in being dismissive of projects that involve substantial, fundamental changes that will take a while, as opposed to ones that deliver value quickly.

The problem with this kind of thinking is that with existing tools and infrastructure, we ultimately hit limits where to make further progress, we will have to replace more fundamental pieces of infrastructure. If we are to ever have a better terminal, that will ultimately require engineers setting out to build such a thing, and will not be the result of incremental changes.

Not recognizing when things are bad

Other thing Gary points out that hits close to home is that when we’ve been working for a while, it’s often hard to see what parts of our tools are actually bad or confusing. The problem here is that it may not even occur to you that there there’s anything wrong with your editor/terminal!.

A recent-ish example of this for me is git. I’ve been using it since I started programming, and is almost an invisible part of my workflow at this point. There are a lot of usability problems with it though, that hadn’t even occurred to me because I’m so used to the tool. A big example here being that git checkout does a lot of different things. Or how difficult and scary it is to undo a commit. A lot of this didn’t occur to me until I came across the Gitless project, which aims to simplify the naming of commands.

This blog post about the issues with SQL is another example of something that has almost become invisible because of how much time I’ve spent with it.

I think my big takeaway here is to keep a beginner’s mind when using your tools. This is also something that becomes apparent when working with more junior folks – take note of the things that are annoying and confusing!

A Modern Example

This talk is from 2012, and I think a lot of the things that Gary has to say about the culture of the tech industry still ring true today. However, there have in the last 10 years been some attempts to replace fundamental pieces of infrastructure, that follow the model that Gary talks about at the end of his talk.

The best example of this is the Rust programming language. Rust is a programming language that aims to bring memory safety to systems programming. Because the language is memory-safe, it eliminates a whole class of bugs, making Rust code much more secure than non-memory safe languages, like C. And because it has very little overhead (ie: no garbage collector), it can be used in a lot of contexts where C is commonly used without a major performance hit.

It’s being adopted all over the place, and there it is now supported in the Linux kernel.

Switching programming languages is a major change, especially for projects like Linux, which need to be conservative around the changes they make. However, this is a clear case where incremental improvements were never going to eliminate memory safety bugs entirely.


I think this is a really important talk for developers to revisit every once in a while. It’s a great reminder to break us out of common thought patterns– both biases towards incremental improvements, as well as blindness to inefficiencies and problems with our tools.

Highly recommend giving it a watch if you haven’t!

Sid Shanker <sid.p.shanker at>